Nevedrov Nikolay Petrovich, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of biology and ecology, Kursk State University (33 Radishcheva street, Kursk, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Smitskaya Galina Igorevna, Student, Kursk State University (33 Radishcheva street, Kursk, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. Heavy metal soil pollution of urban ecosystems inhibits the growth of lawn grasses, which leads to a deterioration in their attractiveness. We have carried out a research that focuses on the influence of heavy metals soil pollution and the use of technologies for their detoxification on the anatomical and morphological indicators of the growth of lawn grasses.
Materials and methods. In the course of the laboratory experiment, the change in the morphological and anatomical parameters of the aboveground organs of lawn grasses (Loliumperenne, Festucarubra, Poapratensis) were investigated during the
treatment of urban soil polluted by Pb (34 MAC) and Cd (1,4 MAC) with a fertilizer-sorbent based on natural material – Callovian clays (overburden of the Mikhailovsky mine) in doses: 9; 18; 36 t/ha.
Results. The influence of anthropogenic pollutants (Pb and Cd) during 21 days of growing lawn grasses under laboratory conditions did not lead to statistically significant changes in such morphometric parameters of aboveground organs of lawn grasses as shoot length and leaf blade area. Soil pollution by Pb and Cd, as well as soil treatment with a fertilizer-sorbent, had a significant impact on biomass production by lawn grasses. The action of the fertilizer-sorbent stimulates gas exchange and transpiration in plants. The number of stomata on the leaf blades of lawn grasses when the soil was treated with a fertilizer-sorbent increased by 45,7–68,2 %. The change in the mesostructure of the leaf (the number of stomata per unit area of the leaf blade) of lawn grasses is a more indicative parameter for determining the degree of environmental pollution by Pb and Cd than the morphometric characteristics of the shoot.
Conclusions. Fertilizer-sorbent not only ensured the fixation of HMs in the soil, but also contributed to the formation of protective mechanisms in plants against their excessive accumulation. The use of the mesostructural approach makes it possible to estimate the limits of plant tolerance to environmental pollution, to reveal the influence of HM pollution and various doses of fertilizer-sorbent at the anatomical and morphological level. Adding a fertilizer-sorbent to urban soil polluted by Pb and Cd makes it possible to increase the efficiency of gas exchange and transpiration of lawn grasses by 2–3,3 times.
1. Bezuglova O. S., Gorbov S. N., Morozov I. V., Nevidomskaya D. G. Urbopochvovedenie: uchebnik [Urban soil science: a textbook]; Yuzhnyy federal'nyy universitet. Rostov-on-Don, 2012, 264 p. [In Russian]
2. Vodyanitskiy Yu. N. Tyazhelye metally i metalloidy v pochvakh [Heavy metals and metalloids in soils]. Moscow: Pochvennyy in-t imeni V. V. Dokuchaeva RASKhN, 2008,164 p. [In Russian]
3. Vodyanitskiy Yu. N., Ladonin D. V., Savichev A. T. Zagryaznenie pochv tyazhelymi metallami: monografiya [Soil contamination with heavy metals: a monograph]. Moscow:Tip. Rossel'khozakademii, 2012, 306 p. [In Russian]
4. Dubovik V. D., Serdyukov S. Yu. Izvestiya Yugo-Zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Southwest State University]. 2014, no. 1 (52), pp. 34–40. [In Russian]
5. Korchagina I. V. Otsenka zagryazneniya gorodskikh pochv tyazhelymi metallami s uchetom profil'nogo raspredeleniya ikh ob"emnykh kontsentratsiy: dis. kand. biol. nauk [Assessment of pollution of urban soils with heavy metals, taking into account the profile distribution of their volume concentrations: dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of biological sciences]. Moscow, 2014, 145 p. [In Russian]
6. Nevedrov N. P., Protsenko E. P., Glebova I. V. Eurasian Soil Science. 2018, vol. 1, pp. 125–132.
7. Angelone M., Armiento G., Cinti D., Somma R., Trocciola A. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 2002, vol. 11, pp. 432–436.
8. Baker A. J. M., Mcrath S. P., Sidoli G. M. D., Reeves R. D. Resour. Conser. Recycl. 1994, vol. 11, pp. 41–49.
9. Iqbal N., Masood A., Iqbal R., Khan M., Syeed S., Khan N. A. Amer. J. Plant Sci. 2012, vol. 3, pp. 1476–1489.
10. Amineva K. Z. Ekologo-biologicheskaya kharakteristika duba chereshchatogo (Quercusrobur L.) v usloviyakh tekhnogennogo zagryazneniya (na primere Ufimskogo promyshlennogo tsentra): dis. kand. biol. nauk: 03.02.08 [Ecological and biological characteristics of pedunculate oak (Quercusrobur L.) in conditions of technogenic pollution (on the example of the Ufa industrial center): dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of biological sciences: 03.02.08]. Ufa, 2016, 164 p. [In Russian]
11. Krokhaleva V. K. Mezhdunarodnyy shkol'nyy nauchnyy vestnik [International School Scientific Bulletin]. 2017, no. 5, p. 5. [In Russian]
12. Nevedrov N. P., Smitskaya G. I. AUDITORIUM. 2019, no. 4 (24). Available at: https:// api-mag.kursksu.ru/media/pdf/Smitskaya_Nevedrov_STAT_Ya_glina_kelloveya_1.pdf